Ramirez-Sarmiento A, Orozco-Levi M, Guell R, Barreiro E, Hernandez N, Mota S, Sangenis M, Broquetas JM, Casan P and Gea J
The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of a specific inspiratory muscle training protocol on the structure of inspiratory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fourteen patients (males, FEV1, 24 +/- 7% predicted) were randomized to either inspiratory muscle or sham training groups. Supervised breathing using a threshold inspiratory device was performed 30 minutes per day, five times a week, for 5 consecutive weeks. The inspiratory training group was subjected to inspiratory loading equivalent to 40 to 50% of their maximal inspiratory pressure. Biopsies from external intercostal muscles and vastus lateralis (control muscle) were taken before and after the training period. Muscle samples were processed for morphometric analyses using monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain isoforms I and II. Increases in both the strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles were observed in the inspiratory training group. This improvement was associated with increases in the proportion of type I fibers (by approximately 38%, p < 0.05) and in the size of type II fibers (by approximately 21%, p < 0.05) in the external intercostal muscles. No changes were observed in the control muscle. The study demonstrates that inspiratory training induces a specific functional improvement of the inspiratory muscles and adaptive changes in the structure of external intercostal muscles.
PMID: 12406842 DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200202-075OC
Beckerman M, Magadle R, Weiner M and Weiner P
We assessed the long-term benefits of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on inspiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, the perception of dyspnea, quality of life, primary care use, and hospitalizations in patients with significant COPD.
Forty-two consecutive COPD patients with FEV(1) < 50% of predicted were randomized into a group that received IMT for 1 year, and a control group that received training with a very low load.
There was a statistically significant increase in inspiratory muscle strength (at the end of the third month of training) as assessed by maximal inspiratory pressure (from 71 +/- 4.9 to 90 +/- 5.1 cm H(2)O [+/- SEM], p < 0.005) and 6-min walk distance (at the end of the third month of training; from 256 +/- 41 to 312 +/- 54 m; p < 0.005), a decrease in the mean Borg score during breathing against resistance (at the end of the ninth month of training), improvement in the health-related quality-of-life scores (at the end of the sixth month of training) in the training group but not in the control group. At the end of the training year, these changes were maintained; in addition, a decrease in primary health-care use and hospitalization days was observed.
Our study shows that during IMT in patients with significant COPD, there is an increase in exercise capacity, improvement in quality of life, and decrease in dyspnea. Our study also provides evidence that long-term IMT can decrease the use of health services and hospitalization days.
PMID: 16304259 DOI: 10.1378/chest.128.5.3177
Serón P, Riedemann P, Muñoz S, Doussoulin A, Villarroel P and Cea X.
Chronic airflow limitation (CAL) is a significant cause of illness and death. Inspiratory muscle training has been described as a technique for managing CAL. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of inspiratory muscle training on improving physiological and functional variables.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Randomized controlled trial in which 35 patients with CAL were assigned to receive either an experimental (n=17) or control (n=18) intervention. The experimental intervention consisted of 2 months of inspiratory muscle training using a device that administered a resistive load of 40% of maximal static inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax). Inspiratory muscle strength, exercise tolerance, respiratory function, and quality of life were assessed.
Significant improvement in inspiratory muscle strength was observed in the experimental training group (P=.02). All patients improved over time in both groups (P<.001). PImax increased by 8.9 cm H2O per month of training. Likewise, the health-related quality of life scores improved by 0.56 points.
Use of a threshold loading device is effective for strengthening inspiratory muscles as measured by PImax after the first month of training in patients with CAL. The long-term effectiveness of such training and its impact on quality of life should be studied in a larger number of patients.
PMID: 16324598 DOI: 10.1016/s1579-2129(06)60293-0
Sánchez Riera H, Montemayor Rubio T, Ortega Ruiz F, Cejudo Ramos P, Del Castillo Otero D, Elias Hernandez T and Castillo Gomez J
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of target-flow inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory muscle function, exercise performance, dyspnea, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with COPD.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Twenty patients with severe COPD were randomly assigned to a training group (group T) or to a control group (group C) following a double-blind procedure. Patients in group T (n = 10) trained with 60 to 70% maximal sustained inspiratory pressure (SIPmax) as a training load, and those in group C (n = 10) received no training. Group T trained at home for 30 min daily, 6 days a week for 6 months.
The measurements performed included spirometry, SIPmax, inspiratory muscle strength, and exercise capacity, which included maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)), and minute ventilation (VE). Exercise performance was evaluated by the distance walked in the shuttle walking test (SWT). Changes in dyspnea and HRQL also were measured.
Results showed significant increases in SIPmax, maximal inspiratory pressure, and SWT only in group T (p < 0.003, p < 0.003, and p < 0.001, respectively), with significant differences after 6 months between the two groups (p < 0.003, p < 0.003, and p < 0.05, respectively). The levels of VO(2) and VE did not change in either group. The values for transitional dyspnea index and HRQL improved in group T at 6 months in comparison with group C (p < 0.003 and p < 0.003, respectively).
We conclude that targeted IMT relieves dyspnea, increases the capacity to walk, and improves HRQL in COPD patients.
PMID: 11555505 DOI: 10.1378/chest.120.3.748
Covey MK, Larson JL, Wirtz SE, Berry JK, Pogue NJ, Alex CG and Patel M
This study examined the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) with high-intensity inspiratory pressure loads on respiratory muscle performance and exertional dyspnea.
This was a randomized single-blind clinical trial. Twenty-seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (18 men, 9 women) with severe to very severe airflow obstruction and severely limited functional performance were assigned randomly to an IMT group (n = 12) or an educational control group (n = 15). The IMT group trained with a threshold loaded device for 30 minutes a day for 16 weeks using interval training techniques. Training was initiated with inspiratory pressure loads equal to 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure (Plmax) and increased as tolerated to 60% of Plmax. Dependent variables were measured before and after 4 months of IMT: inspiratory muscle strength (Plmax), respiratory muscle endurance (discontinuous incremental threshold loading test [DC-ITL]), dyspnea (Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire [CRQ]), and the Borg Category-Ratio Scale ratings of perceived breathing difficulty (RPBD) at equal loads during the DC-ITL.
In the IMT group, Plmax increased from 64 +/- 15 to 75 +/- 17 cm H2O (P < .05), performance on the DC-ITL test increased from a maximal load of 37 +/- 12 to 53 +/- 13 cm H2O (P < .05), RPBD decreased from 5.5 +/- 2.5 to 3.8 +/- 2.6 for equal loads on the DC-ITL (P < .05) and the CRQ Dyspnea Scale improved from 18.1 +/- 5.1 to 22.4 +/- 5.2 (P < .05).
Inspiratory muscle training at high-intensity loads significantly improved inspiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, and respiratory symptoms during daily activities and respiratory exertion.
PMID: 11508185 DOI: 10.1097/00008483-200107000-00008