Bissett BM, Leditschke IA, Neeman T, Boots R and Paratz J
In patients who have been mechanically ventilated, inspiratory muscles remain weak and fatigable following ventilatory weaning, which may contribute to dyspnoea and limited functional recovery. Inspiratory muscle training may improve inspiratory muscle strength and endurance following weaning, potentially improving dyspnoea and quality of life in this patient group.
We conducted a randomised trial with assessor-blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. Following 48 hours of successful weaning, 70 participants (mechanically ventilated ≥7 days) were randomised to receive inspiratory muscle training once daily 5 days/week for 2 weeks in addition to usual care, or usual care (control). Primary endpoints were inspiratory muscle strength and fatigue resistance index (FRI) 2 weeks following enrolment. Secondary endpoints included dyspnoea, physical function and quality of life, post-intensive care length of stay and in-hospital mortality.
34 participants were randomly allocated to the training group and 36 to control. The training group demonstrated greater improvements in inspiratory strength (training: 17%, control: 6%, mean difference: 11%, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences in FRI (0.03 vs 0.02, p=0.81), physical function (0.25 vs 0.25, p=0.97) or dyspnoea (-0.5 vs 0.2, p=0.22). Improvement in quality of life was greater in the training group (14% vs 2%, mean difference 12%, p=0.03). In-hospital mortality was higher in the training group (4 vs 0, 12% vs 0%, p=0.051).
Inspiratory muscle training following successful weaning increases inspiratory muscle strength and quality of life, but we cannot confidently rule out an associated increased risk of in-hospital mortality.
PMID: 27257003 PMCID: PMC5013088 DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-208279
Boden I, Skinner EH, Browning L, Reeve J, Anderson L, Hill C, Robertson IK, Story D and Denehy L
To assess the efficacy of a single preoperative physiotherapy session to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after upper abdominal surgery.
Prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, patient and assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised placebo controlled superiority trial.
Multidisciplinary preadmission clinics at three tertiary public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand.
441 adults aged 18 years or older who were within six weeks of elective major open upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned through concealed allocation to receive either an information booklet (n=219; control) or preoperative physiotherapy (n=222; intervention) and followed for 12 months. 432 completed the trial.
Preoperatively, participants received an information booklet (control) or an additional 30 minute physiotherapy education and breathing exercise training session (intervention). Education focused on PPCs and their prevention through early ambulation and self directed breathing exercises to be initiated immediately on regaining consciousness after surgery. Postoperatively, all participants received standardised early ambulation, and no additional respiratory physiotherapy was provided.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The primary outcome was a PPC within 14 postoperative hospital days assessed daily using the Melbourne group score. Secondary outcomes were hospital acquired pneumonia, length of hospital stay, utilisation of intensive care unit services, and hospital costs. Patient reported health related quality of life, physical function, and post-discharge complications were measured at six weeks, and all cause mortality was measured to 12 months.
In a general population of patients listed for elective upper abdominal surgery, a 30 minute preoperative physiotherapy session provided within existing hospital multidisciplinary preadmission clinics halves the incidence of PPCs and specifically hospital acquired pneumonia. Further research is required to investigate benefits to mortality and length of stay.
PMID: 27257003 PMCID: PMC5013088 DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-208279
DeLucia CM, De Asis RM and Bailey EF.
What is the central question of this study? What impact does inspiratory muscle training have on systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output and baroreflex sensitivity in adult men and women? What is the main finding and its importance? Inspiratory muscle training exerts favorable effects on blood pressure, vascular resistance and perception of stress. This exercise format is well-tolerated and equally effective whether implemented in men or women.
Previous work has shown that inspiratory muscle training (IMT) lowers blood pressure after a mere 6 weeks, identifying IMT as a potential therapeutic intervention to prevent or treat hypertension. Here, we explore the effects of IMT on respiratory muscle strength and select cardiovascular parameters in recreationally active men and women. Subjects were randomly assigned to IMT (n = 12, 75% maximal inspiratory pressure) or sham training (n = 13, 15% maximal inspiratory pressure) groups and underwent a 6-week intervention comprising 30 breaths day-1 , 5 days week-1 . Pre- and post-training measures included maximal inspiratory pressure and resting measures of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and systemic vascular resistance. We evaluated psychological and sleep status via administration of the Cohen-Hoberman inventory of physical symptoms and the Epworth sleepiness scale. Male and female subjects in the IMT group showed declines in systolic/diastolic blood pressures (-4.3/-3.9 mmHg, P < 0.025) and systemic vascular resistance (-3.5 mmHg min l-1 , P = 0.008) at week 6. There was no effect of IMT on cardiac output (P = 0.722), heart rate (P = 0.795) or spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (P = 0.776). The IMT subjects also reported fewer stress-related symptoms (pre- versus post-training, 12.5 ± 8.5 versus 7.2 ± 9.7, P = 0.025). Based on these results, we suggest that a short course of IMT confers significant respiratory and cardiovascular improvements and parallel (modest) psychological benefits in healthy men and women.
blood pressure; inspiratory muscle training; sex; vascular resistance
PMID: 29178489 DOI: 10.1113/EP086641
Langer D, Ciavaglia C, Faisal A, Webb KA, Neder JA, Gosselink R, Dacha S, Topalovic M, Ivanova A and O'Donnell DE.
Among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea, but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax). The effects of 8 wk of controlled IMT on respiratory muscle function, dyspnea, respiratory mechanics, and diaphragm electromyography (EMGdi) during constant work rate cycle exercise were evaluated in patients with activity-related dyspnea (baseline dyspnea index <9). Subjects were randomized to either IMT or a sham training control group ( n = 10 each). Twenty subjects (FEV1 = 47 ± 19% predicted; Pimax = -59 ± 14 cmH2O; cycle ergometer peak work rate = 47 ± 21% predicted) completed the study; groups had comparable baseline lung function, respiratory muscle strength, activity-related dyspnea, and exercise capacity. IMT, compared with control, was associated with greater increases in inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, with attendant improvements in exertional dyspnea and exercise endurance time (all P < 0.05). After IMT, EMGdi expressed relative to its maximum (EMGdi/EMGdimax) decreased ( P < 0.05) with no significant change in ventilation, tidal inspiratory pressures, breathing pattern, or operating lung volumes during exercise. In conclusion, IMT improved inspiratory muscle strength and endurance in mechanically compromised patients with COPD and low Pimax. The attendant reduction in EMGdi/EMGdimax helped explain the decrease in perceived respiratory discomfort despite sustained high ventilation and intrinsic mechanical loading over a longer exercise duration. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressures, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea, but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. This study showed that 8 wk of home-based, partially supervised IMT improved respiratory muscle strength and endurance, dyspnea, and exercise endurance. Dyspnea relief occurred in conjunction with a reduced activation of the diaphragm relative to maximum in the absence of significant changes in ventilation, breathing pattern, and operating lung volumes.
PMID: 29543134 DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01078.2017
Vorona S, Sabatini U, Al-Maqbali S, Bertoni M, Dres M, Bissett B, Van Haren F, Martin AD, Urrea C, Brace D, Parotto M, Herridge MS, Adhikari NKJ, Fan E, Melo LT, Reid WD, Brochard LJ, Ferguson ND and Goligher EC
Respiratory muscle weakness is common in critically ill patients; the role of targeted inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in intensive care unit rehabilitation strategies remains poorly defined.
The primary objective of the present study was to describe the range and tolerability of published methods for IMT. The secondary objectives were to determine whether IMT improves respiratory muscle strength and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients.
We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized and nonrandomized studies of physical rehabilitation interventions intended to strengthen the respiratory muscles in critically ill adults. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, HealthSTAR, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases (inception to September Week 3, 2017) and conference proceedings (2012 to 2017). Data were independently extracted by two authors and collected on a standardized report form.
A total of 28 studies (N = 1,185 patients) were included. IMT was initiated during early mechanical ventilation (8 studies), after patients proved difficult to wean (14 studies), or after extubation (3 studies), and 3 other studies did not report exact timing. Threshold loading was the most common technique; 13 studies employed strength training regimens, 11 studies employed endurance training regimens, and 4 could not be classified. IMT was feasible, and there were few adverse events during IMT sessions (nine studies; median, 0%; interquartile range, 0-0%). In randomized trials (n = 20), IMT improved maximal inspiratory pressure compared with control (15 trials; mean increase, 6 cm H2O; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5-8 cm H2O; pooled relative ratio of means, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.14-1.25) and maximal expiratory pressure (4 trials; mean increase, 9 cm H2O; 95% CI, 5-14 cm H2O). IMT was associated with a shorter duration of ventilation (nine trials; mean difference, 4.1 d; 95% CI, 0.8-7.4 d) and a shorter duration of weaning (eight trials; mean difference, 2.3 d; 95% CI, 0.7-4.0 d), but confidence in these pooled estimates was low owing to methodological limitations, including substantial statistical and methodological heterogeneity.
Most studies of IMT in critically ill patients have employed inspiratory threshold loading. IMT is feasible and well tolerated in critically ill patients and improves both inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength. The impact of IMT on clinical outcomes requires future confirmation.
artificial respiration; inspiratory muscle training; physical therapy; respiratory muscles; weaning
PMID: 29584447 PMCID: PMC6137679 DOI: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201712-961OC