McDonald T, Stiller K
To investigate the feasibility and safety and, to a lesser extent efficacy, of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) for patients with acute complete cervical or thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI).
Prospective, observational pilot study comprising a series of case reports.
Tertiary care, public hospital.
Seven adult subjects with an acute complete cervical or thoracic SCI.
Participants received IMT as soon as their respiratory condition was stable. A high-resistance, low-repetition program of IMT using a POWERbreathe KH1 device was instituted. Training comprised 3-6 sets of 6 breaths, commenced at 50% maximum inspiratory pressure with the training load progressively increased.
Feasibility (number of sessions when the criteria to participate in IMT were met/not met), safety (symptoms and physiological stability) before, during and after IMT sessions and efficacy (lung function) were measured.
There were 50 sessions in total where participants met the criteria to receive IMT, with a mean (range) of 7.1 (3-11) IMT sessions per participant delivered over 10.7 (4-17) days. IMT was feasible, with all 50 planned sessions of IMT able to be delivered, and safe, with stable physiological parameters and no adverse symptoms or events recorded before, during or after IMT. Maximal inspiratory pressure increased for four participants and forced vital capacity increased for three participants over the duration of their IMT sessions.
A high-resistance, low-repetition program of IMT was feasible and safe in adults with an acute complete cervical or thoracic SCI whose respiratory status was stable.
Breathing exercises; Respiratory muscle training; Safety; Spinal cord injuries
PMID: 29400990 PMCID: PMC6419641 [Available on 2020-03-01] DOI: 10.1080/10790268.2018.1432307
Duruturk N, Acar M and Doğrul MI.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, quality of life, and daily living activities of asthmatic patients.
Thirty-eight asthmatic patients, between 18 and 65 years of age, were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups; IMT (n = 20) or control (n = 18). Participants in the IMT group performed 30 breaths using a patient-specific threshold pressure device, twice daily for 6 wk at 50% maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), in addition to "breathing training" during this period. Participants in the control group performed only the "breathing training" (sham or no threshold pressure device). Outcome measurements, performed before and after the intervention, included pulmonary function test, respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walk test, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, Fatigue Severity Scale, and London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale.
Among the outcomes in the study, changes to key variables including MIP (P < .01); MIP, percent predicted (P < .01); maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), percent predicted (P < .01); 6-min walk test walking distance (P = .001); modified Medical Research Council scale (P =<.001); Fatigue Severity Scale (P = .03); St George's Respiratory Questionnaire symptoms (P = .03); London Chest Activity of Daily Living domestic (P = .03); and London Chest Activity of Daily Living leisure (P = .01) were significantly different in favor of IMT versus control.
These findings suggest that IMT may be an effective modality to enhance respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, quality of life, daily living activities, reduced perception of dyspnea, and fatigue in asthmatic patients.
PMID: 29652761 DOI: 10.1097/HCR.0000000000000318
VeenaKiran Nambiar, Savita Ravindra and BS Nanda Kumar
Introduction: Respiratory muscle dysfunction is a cardinal feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contributing to decreased exercise capacity and pulmonary function test (PFT) limitation with progression of the disease. Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) are reliable parameters for assessing the respiratory muscle strength. Aims: This study aims to measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures in male COPD patients, to determine their correlates, and to study the relationship between the severity of COPD and respiratory muscle strength. Patients and Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study. A total of 100 males, who were known COPD patients and who were clinically stable, were recruited. Both inpatients and outpatients were studied. Spirometric PFT test was done, and MIP and MEP were measured using respiratory pressure meter. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation were used. Results: The mean (± standard deviation) MIP and MEP were 47.73 (±19.6) cm H2O and 60.76 (±11.6) cm H2O, respectively. MIP and MEP showed a highly significant correlation (P < 0.001) with forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity. The correlation of MIP and MEP with FEV1shows a positive linear trend, and the MEP values were higher than MIP values. There was a decrease in MIP and MEP with increasing severity of COPD. Conclusion: MIP decreases with progression of the disease, and thus, inspiratory muscle training should be included in a pulmonary rehabilitation program.
Basakci Calik B1, Gur Kabul E2, Taskın H, Telli Atalay O, Bas Aslan U, Tascı M, Bıcakcı F and Yıldız A
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease affecting mainly the axial skeleton and sacroiliac joints. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory muscles and functional exercise capacity, as well as on the specific outcomes of the disease in AS patients. A total of 32 AS patients (mean age 37.37 ± 10.41 years) were randomly assigned as the Training Group (TG) (n = 16, mean age = 35.62 ± 8.18 years) who received IMT + conventional exercise, and the Control Group (CG) (n = 16, mean age = 39.12 ± 12.26 years) who only performed the conventional exercise program. All the subjects were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the 8th week. Respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) and maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax). Functional exercise capacity was measured using the 6-min walk test (6MWT). The Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Disease Function Index and Bath AS Metrology Index were used for activity, function and basic measurements of the disease. A statistically significant improvement was determined in the PImax (p = 0.000), PEmax (p = 0.002), 6MWT (p = 0.041) and BASDAI (p = 0.049) values in the TG after training. There was a significant difference between baseline and after conventional exercise in terms of PEmax (p = 0.017) in the CG. The PEmax (p = 0.001) and the 6MWT (p = 0.053) values were significantly better in the TG. The results of this study demonstrated that IMT in addition to conventional exercises increased inspiratory muscle strength, functional exercise capacity and positively affected the disease activity in AS.
PMID: 29943207 DOI: 10.1007/s00296-018-4093-2
Zeng Y, Jiang F, Chen Y1, Chen P and Cai S
Skeletal muscle dysfunction leads to reduction in activity in patients with COPD. As an essential part of the management of COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) alleviates dyspnea and fatigue, improves exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life, and reduces hospital admissions and mortality for COPD patients. Exercise is the key component of PR, which is composed of exercise assessment and training therapy. To evaluate PR's application in clinical practice, this article summarizes the common methods of exercise measurement and exercise training for patients with COPD. Exercise assessments should calculate patients' symptoms, endurance, strength, and health-related quality of life. After calculation, detailed exercise therapies should be developed, which may involve endurance, strength, and respiratory training. The detailed exercise training of each modality is mentioned in this review. Although various methods and therapies of PR have been used in COPD patients, developing an individualized exercise training prescription is the target. More studies are warranted to support the evidence and examine the effects of long-term benefits of exercise training for patients with COPD in each stage.
KEYWORDS:COPD; exercise assessment; exercise training; pulmonary rehabilitation
PMID: 29983556 PMCID: PMC6027710 DOI: 10.2147/COPD.S167098